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2 06, 2021

Revisiting The Risk

Abstract Within the pipeline industry, there is a concerted push towards reducing the risks associated with the transportation of hazardous products. In the event of hydrocarbon liquid pipeline failure, major concerns are the negative effects on the environment and the socioeconomic impacts on the neighbouring population. The impacts are highly variable and depend on the type of fluid released and the locations affected by the spill; however, there is agreement that the consequences of failure increase with the amount of product released. Therefore, the ability to predict the potential volume of a spill due to a hazardous liquid release [...]

15 01, 2021

Analysis of Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Spill Volumes

Abstract For onshore pipelines transporting hydrocarbon products that remain in a liquid state after release, environmental damage and socioeconomic impact are the dominant concerns. It is reasonable to assume that the magnitude of impact from such a release event is, at least in part, a function of the volume of product released. Analytical models exist for estimating the release volume from pipelines as a function of the physical and operational parameters of the line, and the effective size of the opening at the point of line break. While the estimates of release volumes obtained from such models are an [...]

15 01, 2021

Establishing a Detection Threshold for Acoustic-Based External Leak Detection Systems

Abstract A better understanding of the sensitivity threshold of external leak detection systems can assist pipeline operators in predicting detection performance for a range of possible leak scenarios, thereby helping them to make more informed decisions regarding procurement and deployment of such systems. The analysis approach described herein was developed to characterize the leak detection sensitivity of select fiber optic cable-based systems that employ Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS). The detection sensitivity analysis consisted of two steps. The first step involved identifying a suitable release parameter capable of providing a defensible basis for defining detection sensitivity; the second step involved [...]

3 03, 2020

Special Considerations for Well Tubular Design at Elevated Temperatures

Abstract Understanding of material properties for tubular design under HPHT conditions goes well beyond the basics of the classic methods routinely employed in the industry. The objective of this paper is to highlight several important characteristics of the stress-strain response of high strength tubular materials which differ at elevated temperatures relative to room temperature, and to demonstrate the significant impact these differences can have on the pipe body strength and connection mechanical/sealability performance under HPHT conditions. Coupon test results of high strength tubulars commonly used in HPHT wells are presented to demonstrate the key differences in the stress-strain response [...]

30 09, 2019

Laboratory and Field Testing of a Steam-limiting Flow Control Device Developed for Thermal Applications

Abstract A review of laboratory and field testing of a new flow control device is presented in this paper. The device is designed specifically to limit steam breakthrough in thermal operations. For the past few years, four companies operating Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) facilities in Alberta's oil sands have come together to study downhole Flow Control Devices (FCDs) in a laboratory setting and to share field data of the application of such devices. Within this collaboration, a new device was designed to address the challenge specific to thermal operations, namely limiting steam breakthrough into production wells. Laboratory tests [...]

30 09, 2019

Risk-ranking Approach for Thermal Well Integrity Using Readily Available Application, Well and Operational Parameters

Abstract Well Integrity engineers are commonly challenged with using limited resources, and even more limited data, when trying to identify which wells amongst their diverse well inventory may be prone to damage and failure, the mechanisms and influential factors responsible for the potential damage and failures, and the reason why certain wells may pose the greatest risk. Furthermore, these integrity engineers are often uncertain as to the parameters that should be tracked; what inspection methods should be conducted, in which wells and at what frequency measures should be taken; and how the asset risks can be adequately determined and [...]

30 09, 2019

Verification of Autonomous Inflow Control Valve Flow Performance Within Heavy Oil-SAGD Thermal Flow Loop

Abstract One of the main challenges in Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) wells is steam breakthrough in producer wells, which can result in inefficient bitumen recovery due to high Steam Oil Ratio (SOR). Flow Control Devices (FCDs), also known as Inflow Control Devices (ICDs), have been developed for several years to balance the oil inflow along the horizontal wells and consequently delay or mitigate the unwanted fluid breakthrough. The newest generation of FCDs is a truly Autonomous Inflow Control Valve (AICV) which can optimize oil production, reduce SOR and significantly restrict the inflow of unwanted fluids such as water, [...]

30 09, 2019

Characterization of Flow Control Device Performance with Distributed Fiber-optic Sensors

Abstract It is becoming common to install inflow control devices (ICDs) along steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) production liners to enhance temperature conformance and accelerate depletion. Additionally, some operators advocate the installation of similar outflow control devices (OCDs) along the injection well of the SAGD well pair. Collectively, these inflow and outflow devices are often referred to as FCDs. Industry adoption of flow control devices (FCDs) has increased, and several devices are commercially available for use in SAGD. In an effort to optimize FCD design and selection, a joint industry partnership (JIP) was formed (Vachon et al. 2015) and flow [...]

28 09, 2019

An Introduction to Flow Control Devices and the Potential Benefits to Geothermal Applications

Abstract Geothermal operators face several significant challenges in creating and maintaining optimal production from their wells. One of these challenges is the uniform distribution of both injected and produced fluid to and from the reservoir. Preferential production of fluid from one zone of a reservoir can result in thermal drawdown, reducing the temperature of the produced fluid. Additionally, the formation of direct pathways between injection and production wells, commonly referred to as "short-circuits", can heavily impact downhole heat transfer efficiency, particularly in Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) operations. Thermal heavy oil producers, particularly those who use Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage [...]

22 09, 2019

Use of Different Time Periods in MTTF Estimation – Discussion on the Need for Improved Guidance in Reliability Standards

Abstract Within reliability engineering, different time periods are being used to determine time-related reliability parameters. For example, when determining the mean (expected) time to failure (MTTF) of downhole pumps, typically the operating times or running times are used. But, in some cases, also periods where the pump is available (in an up state), and idle for whatever reason (e.g. surface facilities are down), could be included. ISO 14224:2016 and IEC 60050-192:2015 are key documents guiding reliability data collection and analysis in the petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries. However, not much guidance is provided in these documents on what [...]

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