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22 02, 2020

What’s That Tight Spot: Multi-finger Caliper Deformation Analysis

On October 23, 2019, C-FER held the webinar, "What's that Tight Spot: Multi-finger Caliper Deformation Analysis." During the webinar, we discussed: Deformations – The “Tight Spot” – what is the “Tight Spot,” Causes and Why diagnosis is important Tubular Deformations: Varieties and Root Causes Using Multi-Finger Caliper Data to Diagnose and Quantify Deformations Deformation Case Histories & Simulations This webinar is intended for well integrity, completion and production engineers in oil and gas and cavern storage companies, the staff of logging service companies, and related equipment manufacturers. Learn More About Well Xplore [...]

22 02, 2020

Buckling – When You Push on a Rope

When a casing or tubing string is subjected to axial compression it may form a buckle that can impair well access due to increased local well curvatures. The amplitude (amount of curvature) and shape of the buckle depends on: the amount of compression and; how much lateral constraint is provided by the well cement and surrounding formations If there is no lateral constraint, a global buckle (also called an Euler buckle) can occur that has the appearance of a gradual bow in the casing in one plane. This can occur where an interval of casing is [...]

22 02, 2020

Well Deformation Mechanisms

Well casing is subjected to a wide variety of loading mechanisms that can cause temporary or permanent deformations. These deformations can be due to geological processes or well operations. They can impair or prevent access to the full depth of the well or compromise the pressure integrity.  They can occur instantaneously or progress over many years. Many historical well workover reports have reported casing deformations as “casing collapse” when a tool string cannot pass by a “tight” interval. In fact, collapse is not a common deformation mode, with shear and buckling deformations being much more likely modes of well [...]

22 02, 2020

High Temperature FCD Characterization

Choosing the Right Flow Control Device (FCD) to Maximize Well Performance Flow Control Device (FCD) technology has revolutionized Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD). When used correctly FCDs can lower Steam Oil Ratios (SORs) and increase production. This improves SAGD economics and greatly lowers Green-house Gas (GHG) emissions. The challenge for operators is knowing which type of FCD technology is best for their wells. To choose the right technology, it’s important to first understand the complex, multiphase hydraulic performance of FCDs under SAGD representative conditions. Operators can use this information in their coupled thermal-hydraulic reservoir models to predict their [...]

22 02, 2020

Combined Torsion and Axial Load Testing

Torsion Testing Unit Overview The Torsion Testing Unit (TTU) features a supplemental bending apparatus to simulate pump installations in curved wellbores. A hydraulic accumulator system can simulate shock torsional loads that might occur during pump operation or during unplanned shut-downs. The TTU is capable of applying torque of 16,300 NM (12,000 ft-lb) and axial tension up to 670 kN (150,000 lb). Sucker rod specimens included standard single rods, rods with threaded couplings and continuous rod. Sucker Rod Testing Sucker rod strength can be verified by applying a static axial load and ramping torsion to failure. A custom [...]

22 02, 2020

ESP Seal Chamber Testing

Are You Overlooking a Key Design Element in Your ESP System? Due to the costs associated with implementing an Electric Submersible Pump (ESP) system most operators are very focused on maximizing reliability. Historically, however, the Seal component has not mandated the same level of technical investigation as other downhole components. ESP Seal design is still perceived by many as an empirical process. It is not clear how key design parameters, such as bag expansion/contraction volumes, relief valve opening pressure, and flow passage areas are established. It is also assumed that the ESP Seal will operate primarily under steady-state conditions, [...]

22 02, 2020

Deep Well Simulator

Simulating Bottomhole Service Conditions C-FER Technologies's Deep Well Simulator (DWS) is used to develop and test a wide range of systems and products under precisely simulated downhole service conditions. The DWS can also be used as a secondary containment vessel in which combinations of casing and tubing strings can be hung to build a wide range of wellbore configurations. Configurations may include concentric or parallel tubing strings, remote operated valves, instrumentation and temperature control systems installed at various locations along the length of the wellbore. At surface, pumps, manifolds, flow meters and fluid and gas supplies can all be [...]

22 02, 2020

Low Temperature Operations

Accounting for the Harsh Effects of Cold Temperature Operations Operations in the Arctic and cold weather regions are challenging due to embrittlement of components, and generation of significant thermal stress loads, which can lead to structural cracking and failures under otherwise normal loading conditions. Temperature variations also change the elasticity and dimensions of sealing components leading to reduce performance and leaks.   For example bladder accumulators stiffen at cold temperatures, limiting their performance in safety systems such as blow out preventers and transient pressure suppression systems on pipelines. Rapid changes in equipment temperatures can cause differential expansion of components leading [...]

22 02, 2020

Special Environments Laboratory

Sour Gas, What is it Really Doing to Your Equipment? C-FER Technologies's Special Environments Laboratory (SEL) is one of the world's largest and most comprehensive containment test facilities. This unique facility is utilized for tests that simulate corrosive, toxic or explosive environments. The primary use of the SEL is for sour testing with combinations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon dioxide (CO2) and corrosive liquids; often following NACE testing fluid specifications. A Unique Facility Housing Two Containment Chambers Designed for Full-scale Testing in Toxic and Corrosive Environments To safely conduct these tests, C-FER has rigorous safety procedures in [...]

13 01, 2020

Subsurface Safety Valve Equipment (SSSV)

Well Completions in Challenging Environment Operators are completing wells in increasingly challenging environments where equipment are subject to extreme pressures, temperatures, and mechanical loading. It is critical to ensure that equipment can withstand these conditions through validation testing. API Specification 14A (2015) Annex J provides a methodology by which manufacturers/end users may verify that the Subsurface Safety Valve (SSSV) hydro mechanical system functions properly at all anticipated in service loading conditions (the Rated Performance Envelope). Annex H of the standard (Verification and Validation Requirements for High-pressure, High-temperature Environment) requires performance of the Combined Loads Operational Test at maximum [...]

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