The reliability-based approach has been gaining popularity in the industry as a tool for planning transmission pipeline corrosion management programs. Compared to the typical experience-based deterministic safety factors prescribed in standards, the traditional reliability-based approach has the following advantages and disadvantages: Traditional Reliability-Based Approach Experience-Based Deterministic Safety Factors + produces a consistent risk level after repairs - produces unknown risk level after repairs + reduces unnecessary excavations by targeting high-risk pipeline sections - does not target high-risk locations - uses computationally challenging probabilistic calculations + uses simple deterministic calculations C-FER has developed a simplified [...]
Flaws and defects in pipelines can result in significant problems. Fortunately, a new generation of tools are now available to detect circumferential crack-like features. Once detected, pipeline operators have a few options to repair these flaws: Replace the section of pipe; Weld a metal sleeve over an extended area; or Use any one of many possible non-welded repair technologies. One main challenge for operators is choosing the right repair solution for their specific operating conditions. Why Not Repair the Flaw with Traditional Welding? Welding a metal sleeve is the traditional approach, but it can also create problems. Welding [...]
Non-contact Strain Measurement Digital Image Correlation technology provides three-dimensional (3D) measurements of shape, global displacement and relative displacement (strain) on the surface an object using an optical method. Generally, Digital Image Correlation systems involve two or more imaging sensors (i.e. cameras) to provide sufficient information to for the software to triangulate and track objects in three dimensions. With the help of a randomized speckle pattern applied to the object’s surface, Digital Image Correlation systems can resolve displacements into continuous stress and strain measurements within the area of focus. Some of the main advantages of Digital Image Correlation [...]
Detecting Oil Spills on Inland Waterways Pose Significant Challenges Detecting oil spilled on inland waterways poses a significant challenge to pipeline operators due to: Changing water levels and flow rates; Presence of debris and suspended sediment; Floating and submerged oil; Ice cover for large portions of the year; and Remote locations with no supporting infrastructure. Bringing Value to Technology Evaluation by Simulating Realistic, Full-scale Conditions in a Controlled Environment The project will identify potential technologies and set up realistic, full-scale trials to help operators select the best technology to rapidly and reliably detect oil spills on inland waterways. [...]
How to Limit Permanent Pipeline Deformation when Conventional Methods Can't be Applied Ground movements or constrained thermal expansion can cause stresses in a pipeline or other structure to exceed the yield strength of the pipe material, resulting in permanent deformation of the pipe. Conventional stress-based design methods would suggest that higher strength materials and thicker pipe walls are required to limit the stress in these pipes; however, in many cases, these designs become impractical due to the cost or size of the pipe. A design approach is required to provide cost effective designs for the desired service life in [...]
Consider all Uncertainties in Your Data C-FER Technologies uses Monte Carlo simulation and statistical models to consider the uncertainty in all of your data. Below is a basic implementation of Monte Carlo simulation used to evaluate the burst pressure of corrosion features. Set the size and sizing accuracy of a corrosion feature and see how the simulated burst pressure distribution compares to the nominal deterministic value. You can also modify the burst pressure model and the number of simulations ran.
Visualize Your Data C-FER Technologies can leverage historical data to assist in identifying potential threats to your assets. Interactive, web-based visualizations allow you to make quick and meaningful insights based on your data or the results of C-FER’s assessments. The following visualization explores PHMSA Incident data. Use the slider to adjust the charted year from 1968 to 2019. Incidents are categorized based on their product, type and cause. Significant shifts in the data can be seen over years with changing reporting practices, such as in 1970 and 1984. [...]
CONSIDERING LINE FAILURE HISTORY - PIRAMID TUTORIAL Watch the PIRAMID tutorial video below to learn how to incorporate line specific failure history when using PIRAMID’s historical-based probability estimation modules. Using a Bayesian technique, PIRAMID’s baseline historical failure rates can be adjusted with the failure history of the line being analyzed.
Choosing a Growth Rate Strategy - PIRAMID TUTORIAL Watch the PIRAMID tutorial video below to learn how to change the strategy used for defect growth.
Introducing Leak Detection Systems for Monitoring Pipeline Operations Pipeline operators are interested in using a variety of leak detection systems to ensure the safe operation of their pipelines. Among the systems being considered are various detectors that can be mounted on aircraft that can augment the regular right-of-way inspections that are already being conducted. Some technologies are already used to detect leaks from natural gas pipelines; however, leaks from liquid pipelines can be more difficult to detect due to the behavior of the liquid hydrocarbon as it enters the soil. The challenge is to detect small liquid hydrocarbon leaks [...]