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8 10, 2020

Enhanced Geothermal Systems Promise and Challenges

Limitations of Conventional Geothermal Resources Geothermal energy is a proven “green” energy technology in areas where high temperature hydrothermal sources exist.  A hydrothermal source contains three key parameters: heat, a natural water source, and; sufficient permeability. These conditions exist primarily at tectonic plate boundaries and are an important resource for large industrial power and direct use applications. There are currently hydrothermal power plants operating in over 30 countries. These plants are mainly along the “Pacific Ring of Fire." The largest capacity existing in: United States, Indonesia, Philippines, and; New Zealand. Iceland and Turkey also have significant hydrothermal developments. However, [...]

22 09, 2020

Determining Corrosion Repairs Using a Simplified Reliability Approach

The reliability-based approach has been gaining popularity in the industry as a tool for planning transmission pipeline corrosion management programs. Compared to the typical experience-based deterministic safety factors prescribed in standards, the traditional reliability-based approach has the following advantages and disadvantages: Traditional Reliability-Based Approach Experience-Based Deterministic Safety Factors + produces a consistent risk level after repairs - produces unknown risk level after repairs + reduces unnecessary excavations by targeting high-risk pipeline sections - does not target high-risk locations - uses computationally challenging probabilistic calculations + uses simple deterministic calculations C-FER has developed a simplified [...]

14 06, 2020

How Can Pipeline Operators Evaluate Novel Non-welding Repair Technologies?

Flaws and defects in pipelines can result in significant problems. Fortunately, a new generation of tools are now available to detect circumferential crack-like features. Once detected, pipeline operators have a few options to repair these flaws: Replace the section of pipe; Weld a metal sleeve over an extended area; or Use any one of many possible non-welded repair technologies. One main challenge for operators is choosing the right repair solution for their specific operating conditions. Why Not Repair the Flaw with Traditional Welding? Welding a metal sleeve is the traditional approach, but it can also create problems. Welding [...]

4 06, 2020

ICD Erosion Simulation

Erosion Effects on Flow Control Device (FCD) Performance A major thermal operator contacted C-FER to investigate the effects of erosion on Inflow Control Devices (ICDs) and how their performance may change over +20 years in a SAGD well. The long-term performance of these ICDs heavily influences the economics of SAGD production and is a key design consideration for all thermal operators. Unfortunately, erosion mechanisms (and erosion testing) can be quite complex, and trying to evaluate erosion under the high temperature multiphase flow conditions in a SAGD well is even more challenging. In-Flow Control Device (ICD) In-situ Erosion Simulation C-FER [...]

4 06, 2020

Custom Flow Loops and Standards

Custom Flow Loop Testing In addition to C-FER Technologies’s existing flow loops, C-FER has the capability to provide custom testing solutions. C-FER has extensive experience in the design, construction and operation of experimental flow loops tailored to meet specific testing needs. All flow loops incorporate C-FER’s custom data acquisition and control systems. C-FER’s custom flow loops can utilize other facilities including: Deep Well Simulator - a 46 m deep well located directly within C-FER’s laboratory; and Special Environments Laboratory  - for tests that simulate corrosive, toxic or explosive environments. Testing to Standards Flow testing to existing standards and recommended [...]

4 06, 2020

Gas Well Deliquification Flow Loop

C-FER designed and built the Gas Well Deliquification Flow Loop (DFL) to perform qualification and performance tests on novel gas well deliquification technologies. The loop uses water, oil, air, or a water/solids mixture as the test fluid. This flow loop provides the client with a low risk, affordable opportunity to learn how their system functions under specific test conditions prior to deployment in the field. The instrumentation is also easily movable off-site to a controlled “test well” for testing under more realistic conditions. C-FER currently has the majority of the necessary wellhead equipment, 4.5 inch casing, and coiled tubing [...]

4 06, 2020

High Temperature Pump Testing

The High Temperature Flow Loop is used to carefully test the performance of downhole pumping systems over a range of operating temperatures, pressures, flowrates and gas/liquid ratios. This custom loop includes an 90-ft-long, 244.5 mm OD (9.625 in, 40 lb/ft), casing section. The section is orientated at 3° off horizontal to mimic a “typical” SAGD production well where the artificial lift  system can be positioned. Over the years, the flow loop has been upgraded numerous times. It is used to independently test the performance, reliability, and degradation of some of the newest forms of high temperature artificial lift systems [...]

3 06, 2020

Seal Evaluation for Premium Connections

Torque-turns Measurement during Makeup is Insufficient to Indicate Seal Integrity Operators require gas tight connections for a variety of applications including thermal, HPHT and tight oil wells. Premium connections that incorporate a metal-to-metal seal near the nose of the casing pin end can provide this level of seal performance. Premium connections do not follow a specific design code. Their performance can vary considerably among manufacturers and even among different casing sizes. Conventional torque-turns measurements during connection assembly are not adequate to confirm proper metal-to-metal seal engagement. Ultrasonic Inspection of Seal Surface Indicates Seal Quality C-FER has developed a [...]

19 05, 2020

Collapse – When You Can’t Take the Pressure

Exploring Factors that can Influence the Collapse Resistance of the Casing Casing collapse can occur when external pressure or load exceeds the collapse resistance of the casing. Factors that can influence the collapse resistance of the casing include: Pipe ovality – the initial ovality of the pipe from the manufacturing process or due to damage during installation such as bending or crushing, can reduce the collapse resistance; Axial loading – loads induced in the casing during operation due to temperature changes, subsidence and improper pre-tensioning can affect the collapse resistance. Increased axial tension can reduce the collapse [...]

19 05, 2020

Shear – When the Earth Moves

Exploring Well Operations and Reservoir Processes Affecting Shear Movement along fault zones and slip planes may cause significant shear deformations of wellbores that appear as lateral displacement of the pipe. These often form an “S” shape with two distinct bends in opposite directions. Faults may move due to: Ongoing tectonic activity; Changes in the in-situ stresses caused by pore pressure depletion during production operations; and Pore pressure increases that can occur due to well drilling, stimulation or disposal of produced water. The width of the fault zone can vary from less than a metre to several tens [...]

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