Risk

Corrosion mitigation for pipelines, vintage pipelines in particular, has a significant effect on the industry’s management systems and related costs. To help optimize the corrosion management process, deterministic reliability-based corrosion assessment criteria have been developed for onshore pipelines as part of a joint industry project.

We worked with TransCanada Pipelines to evaluate the assessment criteria to determine if they lead to reasonable corrosion management decisions and compare...

Abstract

Over the past decades, risk assessment of industrial facilities perceived to present significant potential hazards has become widespread, and in some jurisdictions it has become a regulatory requirement or a societal norm. The application of risk concepts to transportation pipelines has become commonplace, and while qualitative techniques may be sufficient for such purposes as the establishment of maintenance priorities and preliminary route selection, increasing need has been seen...

Abstract

Kinder Morgan, Inc. (KMI) is one of the largest midstream energy companies in North America, operating more than 30,000 miles of natural gas and product pipelines. Major interstate natural gas pipeline assets include Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America (NGPL), Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission, L.L.C., TransColorado and Trailblazer. NGPL transports up to 5.7 billion cubic feet (Bcf)/day) of natural gas through 10,000 miles of pipeline and has 210 Bcf of working gas...

Abstract

Many pipelines were built before the industry developed material specifications for fracture control. For these older pipelines an essential first step in fracture control is to estimate the existing likelihood of fracture initiation and propagation. It is also desirable for operators to know the size of defects the pipeline can tolerate without causing pipeline fracture. This paper describes a methodology developed for the probabilistic characterization of the fracture initiation...

Abstract

The Australian pipeline design code AS 2885 is largely a risk-based standard, and its safety management study process is admirably suited to the needs of the Australian industry. However it is a unique process that has been developed in Australia and is not used anywhere else in the world. Successfully benchmarking it against other risk assessment methodologies would put the basis of the Australian approach on a footing that would be more difficult to challenge should a major...

Abstract

The ductile fracture arrest capability of gas pipelines is seen as one of the most important factors in the future acceptance of new high strength pipeline steels for high pressure applications. It has been acknowledged for some time that the current methods for characterizing and predicting the arrest toughness for ductile fracture propagation in high strength steels are un-conservative. This observation is based on the inability of existing models to predict the required arrest...

Abstract

Despite vigilant efforts in project scheduling and planning by engineers and project managers, recent market research reported a marked decrease in project success rates. The market research tracked projects across a broad range of industries and concluded the primary failure causes to be a lack of sufficient detail in the project planning stage, poor or no risk analysis, scope creep and poor communication. This paper focuses on a strategy to minimize the first cause. Specifically,...

Abstract

The risk of pipeline failure is a measure of the state of knowledge of the pipeline; improved knowledge of the pipeline reduces the uncertainty and therefore can reduce the associated risk. Specifically for corrosion defects, the knowledge of the number and size of defects is often obtained using in-line inspection tools which have uncertainty associated with their measurement capabilities. Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) is a methodology that objectively assesses a range of...

Abstract

The probability of detection (POD) describes the ability of an in-line inspection (ILI) tool to detect cracks and is one of the key performance indicators for ILI system qualification. The POD of an ILI tool is often specified by the vendor as the probability of a feature above a certain threshold size being detected by the tool. To verify the POD performance of ILI tools, selected pipeline sections from the ILI runs are excavated and inspected. The excavation data provide valuable...

Abstract

The paper describes a quantitative model for risk-based integrity maintenance planning for offshore pipelines. The model calculates the risk level as the product of failure consequences and failure probabilities. Failure consequences considered include financial aspects relating to repair, interruption and restoration; safety aspects related to platform and vessel occupants; and environmental aspects associated with spills. Distinction is made between small leaks, large leaks and...